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Intellectual disability
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  Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual developmental disability (IDD), general learning disability, or mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

Date : 5/19/2016

  Signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of intellectual disability are all behavioral. Most people with intellectual disability do not look like they are afflicted with such, especially if the disability is caused by environmental factors such as malnutrition or lead poisoning.

Date : 5/19/2016

  Cause
Among children, the cause is unknown for one-third to one-half of cases. Down syndrome, velocariofacial syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are the three most common inborn causes.

Date : 5/19/2016

  Diagnosis
According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)...

Date : 5/19/2016

  Intelligence quotient
The first English-language IQ test, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, was adapted from a test battery designed for school placement by Alfred Binet in France.

Date : 5/19/2016

  Distinction from other disabilities
Clinically, intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities...

Date : 5/19/2016

  Limitations in more than one area
Adaptive behavior, or adaptive functioning, refers to the skills needed to live independently (or at the minimally acceptable level for age).

Date : 5/19/2016

  Management
By most definitions, intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from mental illness, such as schizophrenia or depression. Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things.

Date : 5/19/2016

  Epidemiology
Intellectual disability affects about 2–3% of the general population

Date : 5/19/2016

  History
Intellectual disabilities of all kinds have been documented under a variety of names throughout history. Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disabilities were commonly viewed as burdens on their families.

Date : 5/18/2016

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