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The effect of an eight-week program of aerobic exercise on the physical self-concept of childrenages 8 to 10 years with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

“Self-concept” or the concept of “self” is atermin psychology that experts in this field of the science agree on the importance of one’s self-concept which influences people’s behaviors and cognitive and emotional outcomes.A person who has a negative self-concept, his life and his work is always with doubt, hesitation and anxiety; leading to limit a person's ability and achievement. If a person’s self-concept is positive and he is a self-confident person; his self-fulfillment needs ofthe desire to be successfulwill be grown and flourishesand he will be independent in his action and behavior which makes satisfaction and effective use of the individualpotential.
 
The sportsresearchers conclude that competition and competitive sports activities havephysical, psychological and social benefits and spiritual and moral values are developed through it. Also sports activitieshave effective potential on cognitive, especially the self-perception of body and some participantshave reported an increase in the sense of physical abilityafter exercise that often it is transferred to other aspects of their lives. One's physical position is related more to the feeling of his body. So our posture and our physical fitness is one of the roots for our relationship with others and impression of our own.The research in this field has shown that increase physical fitness and physical activity influence the development of self-concept.Toker showed that physical fitness factors are acceptablemeasures to predict body image.
Because of some differences, special children require certain facilities and special attention more than ordinary people. Mental retardationis interpreted as an insufficiency in the development of mental faculties. Poorphysical condition which is physical characteristic in mental retarded should be noticed seriously. These children need to develop physical fitness and mobility. An important issue is that these children may be unable to perform some skills, while this failure is due to not understanding that special mobility skill. Sports activity and physical education may encourage these children to participate in dynamic programs.
 
There is little research on the role of sport and physical education on mental-physical components in exceptional children with mental retardation.This study seeks to answer the question whether physical activity improves physical self-concept in exceptional children?A sports program has an important role to back individuals with mental retardation to the normal life. Research shows that regular daily physical therapy program is effective to improve mental and physical health of patients with severe mental disabilities. Based on the findingsof every three adults with mental retardation in Latin America, less than one person is active enough, and totally mental retarded have many problems while adults with mental retardation who had regular sports activities in their childhood have fewer mobility problems. Johan had a research on mental retarded children who were 7 to 10 years old in 2008; it was performed on two skills: displacement skill and control movement of the object. The study showed that an intervention program had a meaningful impact ondisplacement skills and control movement of the object.
Therefore, offering suitable exercise and sport programs for children with mental and physical retardation is essential. Research shows that aerobic exercise significantly increasephysical self-concept  in the experimental group, while no significant change was observed in the pre-test and post-test in thisgroup. Prankala-Pynkam and assistants (2005) and Chastin and Shapiro (1987) have shown that training programs are able to increase psychological and physiological capabilities in the individuals with physical disabilities that the results of this study confirm the previous results too.
As children understand the concept of activity, movement and ability to work at the time of exercise and sport, often their self-assessment and their general emotional growth will progress as well. In the present study, children with mental and physical disabilities have shown a positive reaction to the physical exercises and their imagination of themselves in terms of physical self-concept was increased.Due to the large number of students with disabilities and retardation, their mental retardation is related to structural factors and these children have problem in dynamic-perceptual and cognitive skills. Finally, it’s suggested that a research should investigatethe effect of sport and physical exercises on dynamic-perceptual functions and also physiological indices of these individuals.
 
References
Persian, Ali Reza and assistances (2008). Determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire in perceived physical fitness and related factors. Research Design of Physical Education and Sport Sciences institute.
HakimeAkbari, HasanKhalaji, Mohsen Shafizade (2007). The impact of local and domestic games on development of fundamental skillsin boys; 7 to 9 years old.Harkat publication. No.39


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