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Speech-language pathology
Speech therapy or Speech-language pathology is a field of rehabilitation science that explores the nature of speech and language disorders and also provides methods of diagnosing and treating these disorders.
Language consists of two parts: comprehensive and expressive and components of speech production include: articulation, fluency, voice and resonance.
 
Speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders and swallowing disorders.Speech therapists treat children engaged in learning the proper use of the native language or speech problems, and also adults who for some reason, have lost their ability to speak.
We know that language is a means to express emotions and communicate ideas and thoughts that if there wasn’t or couldn’t demonstrate its effectiveness, expected many activities in daily life could continue slowly and communication was unable to continue. In the issue of growth,a restriction on the child’s developmental system causes irreparable damage to the child. Growth in all branches must have harmony without limits. The child's progress will be in crisis in any kind of growth disorder (motor, cognitive, verbal, visual, and physical, etc.) and the child’s independence is taken away and it will be replaced with needs to others, while independence, improving the child's abilities and makes him successful in his social relations with his fellows.
 
In “speech therapy" there are many reasons for delay in speech and language development, such as mental retardation, emotional and mental problems, physical, cerebral and peripheral problems which in turn, could create a damaging role in speech and language.
 
Mental retardation is a kind of disorder that is specified with IQ performance under normal and impairment in adaptive skills.Mental retardation is defined statistically that cognitive performance based on standardized tests of intelligence, equivalent to two standard deviations below the average of the general population.
 
The age of onset of mental retardation is under 18 years and the purpose of adaptive skills is doing some work thatis normally expectedof a person at any special age.Education and social measures can provide a normal life outside the hospital for these individuals, including special schools, doing housework and crafts and support these individuals and their families.
Research shows that there is no significant difference between these children and normal children.Mentally retarded people can notice to the given homework based on their mental age as their counterparts, but it’s difficult to do homework related to the cleaning stimulus because they pay attention to the less important aspects instead of those aspects which are necessary. They have trouble withshort-term memory, generalization, joint attention, problem-solving and abstract concepts as well.Limitation in communication is often a sign of MR. Language disorders will be checked in these children in terms of syntax, semantics (lexicon, semantic relationships, applications and classifications), phonology (pronunciation of the sounds) and pragmatics (the practical application of language that is an output of interaction between other listed variables). According to the syntax, these children show little differences compared to their counterparts in learning grammatical rules on the basis of mental age, especially as long as their statements duration is shortbut by increasing the length of their sentences, these children show more problems. They use shorter and less complicated sentences and they are older than normal children at the same mental age when they increase the length of their sentences.
 
According to phonology, articulation errors are more common in these children than in normal children and they show these errors more and longer than other children.According to semantics, learning vocabularies iseasier than learning the syntax in these children, butthe meanings of words are more concrete and literal and using and understanding the abstract concepts are difficult for them. Adjectives and adverbs are used less frequently.
 
Based on pragmatics, they have problem for starting the conversation, keep talking about the topic, turns to follow the conversation and in eye contact with the others. They ask fewer questions and less say in the conversation.
 
Translated by: Raheleh Shariat
 


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